Brodo, I. M., S. D. Sharnoff, & S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 795 pages. A total of 805 species received main entries, while an additional 700 species were keyed or mentioned. That sums to 1505, 42% of the species in the sixth North American checklist. Excellent photographs and descriptions.
Goward, T. 1999. The Lichens of British
Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 2, Fruticose Species. 319 pages. Available from: Crown Publications,
521 Fort St., Victoria BC V8W 1E7. http://www.crownpub.bc.ca/
(Can$55) Phone 250-386-4636 or downloadable pdf files from http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/index.htm
Goward, T., B. McCune, and D. Meidinger. 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia. Part 1. Foliose and Squamulose Species. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Crown Publications Inc., Victoria, B.C. 181 pp. (ISSN 0843-6452; 8. Paper bound; comprehensive keys illustrated with black and white drawings, with supplemental information on habitat, range, spot test reactions, and chemical content. http://www.crownpub.bc.ca/
McCune, B. and L. Geiser. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press. 386 pages. (ISBN 0-87-71-394-9, pbk.: Color photos and descriptions for over 200 foliose and fruticose lichens plus keys to species known from Oregon and Washington; contact OSU Press: 541-737-3166, fax 541-737-3170.)
McCune, B. and L. Geiser. 2009. Macrolichens
of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd Edition. Oregon
State University Press. Secure
online orders. (5-1/2
x 8-1/2 inches. 504 pages including introduction and index. Color
photographs. Bibliography. Illustrated glossary.
ISBN 978-0-87071-565-5. Paperback, $30.00 pbk.: Treats 581 species of foliose and fruticose lichens, including full page treatment for almost 250 species, The book includes all macrolichens known from Oregon and Washington. See online lists of illustration credits and specimens and species changes at ScholarsArchive@OSU.
McCune, B. 2010. Keys to the Lichen Genera of the Pacific Northwest. 94 pp. Download pnw.pdf now.Last updated August 2012.
McCune, B. and T. Goward. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press, Arcata, California. 208 pp. (ISBN 0-916422-82-8; Plastic comb binding; contains keys and partial descriptions for foliose, fruticose, and squamulose lichens; some species illustrated with line drawings. Order from: Mad River Press, 141 Carter Lane, Arcata, CA, U.S.A; (price about $25)
McCune, B. and R. Rosentreter. 2007. Biotic Soil Crust Lichens of the Columbia Basin. Monographs in North American Lichenology 1: 1-105. Pbk. $30. Fully illustrated in color. More information at NW Lichenologists website.
Noble, W. J. 1982. The Lichens of the Coastal Douglas-Fir Dry Subzone. PhD Thesis, Univ. British Columbia, 942 pp. (This is the only complete flora, including crustose lichens, for a region of the Pacific Northwest. This is a very impressive and mammoth work, with lots of excellent information. It is very useful for areas west of the Cascade crest. It contains keys and full species descriptions. Part II (the flora) was reprinted and updated in 1997 and is available at cost from McCune; 238 pages, spiral bound; not illustrated except for spore drawings of selected taxa.)
Rosentreter, R., M. Bowker and J. Belnap. 2008. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado. Spiral bound paperback. Free. Color illlustrations. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for a copy or download a pdf.