LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: MERCURY TO SHUTTLE


MERCURY PROGRAM:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psia. O2 storage as compressed gas.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidty Control - Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX)

Water - Supply stored in bladder tank. Disinfection by residual chlorine. Waste water vented overboard.


GEMINI PROGRAM:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psia. Supercritical Cryogenic O2 storage.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidty Control - CHX

Water - Supply stored in bladder tank. Disinfection by addition of hypochlorite. Waste water vented overboard.


APOLLO COMMAND MODULE:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psia. Supercritical Cryogenic O2 storage.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidty Control - CHX

Water - Produced by fuel cells. Waste water stored or sent to evaporators (cooling), excess vented.


APOLLO LUNAR MODULE:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psia. O2 storage as compressed gas and supercritical cryogenic fluid.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidty Control - Water circulation through pressure suit.

Water - Pre-filled pressurized bladder supply tanks. Disinfection from iodine residual. Waste water stored.


SKYLAB:

Oxygen - 72% O2 / 28% N2 with cabin pressure at 5 psia. N2 and O2 storage as compressed gases.

Carbon Dioxide Control - Vacuum regenerable Molecular Sieve 5A/Molecular Sieve 13X beds.

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidty Control - CHX

Water - Pre-filled pressurized supply tanks. Iodine added as disinfectant on orbit. Waste water stored, with excess vented.


SHUTTLE ORBITER:

Oxygen - 21.7% O2 / 78.3% N2 with cabin pressure at 14.7 psia. N2 and O2 storage as compressed gases. O2 also stored as supercritical cryogenic fluid.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH, Regenerable Solid Amines in EDO configuration.

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon. Carbon monixide oxidized to CO2 using Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO)

Temperature and Humidty Control - CHX

Water - Produced by fuel cells. Disinfection via flow-through Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Waste water stored, with excess vented overboard.


RELATED SITES:


REFERENCES

Bond, T.A., Metcalf, J.L., and Asuncion C., Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem Design and Flight Experience, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911366, presented 21st International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, CA, July 15-18, 1991.

Brasseaux, H.J., Jr., Winkler, H.E., North, J.D., and Orlando, S.P., The Extended Duration Orbiter Waste Collection System, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 901291, presenated 20th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, Williamsburg, VA, July 9-12, 1990.

Diamant, B.L., and Humphries, W.R., Past and Present Environmental Control and Life Support Systems on Manned Spacecraft, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 901210, presenated 20th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, Williamsburg, VA, July 9-12, 1990.

Ouellette, F.A., Winkler, H.E., and Smith, G.S., The Extended Duration Orbiter Regenerable CO2 Removal System, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 901292, presented at 20th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Williamsburg, VA, July 9-12, 1990.

Winkler, H.E., Cerna, N.F., Rotter, H.A., Jr., Ouellette, F.A., Hoy, M.D., and Brasseaux, Jr., Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System-Flight Experience, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 961334, presented at 26th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Monterey, CA, July 8-11, 1996.

Winkler, H.E., Goodman, J.R., Murry, R.W., and McIntosh, M.E., Shuttle Waste Management System Design Improvements and Flight Evaluation, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 861003, presented 16th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, CA, July 14-16, 1986.


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Copyright © 1996, James E. Atwater