Oregon State University

CS 101: Applications and Implications of Computers

Oregon State University, College of Engineering

Chapter 8 ~ How Hardware
Manufacturing Works

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From the beginning of their interaction with the environment, humans have invented tools and methods (technology) to improve their day-to-day existence and prolong life. We ground grains between stones, shaped wood and mud into vessels, wove fibers into clothing, planted seeds to increase food supplies, forged metals to improve transportation, harnessed electricity to power machines, and used our minds to tell those machines how to behave.

These advances have created wealth as well as poverty in a multitude of ways. In this chapter, you'll explore some of the amazing advances of hardware as well as the global consequences.

Then, you'll examine a case of hardware invention which disrupted society and add that research to a collaborative historical timeline.

Group Discussion

Start a new word processing document or Keep note and write about the reading and research below. Write in complete sentences. Hyperlink the titles of articles in your writing so your groupmates can quickly jump to them. Check spelling and grammar. After posting your finished writing, reply to another student's thread.

8.1 Research and write about personal changes due to technology.

In the first paragraph, reflect on technology that has changed you personally.

  • What modes of transportation, communication, and productivity have changed drastically from the time you were a child to now?
  • How did those changes affect your behavior?

8.2 Write about a disruptive technology.

First is mechanism, water, and steam power. Second is mass production, assembly line, and electricity. Third is computerization and automation. And the fourth is cyberphysical systems.

Disruptive technologies are those that have transformed society. In the mid 1700's mechanization and the steam engine heralded a new era of mass production. Just 100 years later, electricity and fossil fuel energies along with the telegraph and telephone sped up our ability to communicate and travel faster, fostering a new era of networking. Within another 100 years, we were able to computerize those networks, satiate our need for more electricity with nuclear energy and dig deeper into space as well as the microscopic with bigger and smaller technologies.

And now just 50 years later, we are at the brink of major changes again, with the advent of virtual computing and smart devices and roboticized mass production and healthcare.

The World Economic Forum, whose agenda is to foster international public/private cooperation by evaluating trends to shape future technologies and governance, explains the fourth industrial revolution:

  1. Use Google, Google Scholar, Bing, Library Databases, or your SmartNews app to research and write about a single technology that disrupted society.
  2. Choose a technology that you would like to explore for the weekly project.
  3. In second paragraph, write a quick summary of the technology...who invented it when and what does it do? You'll write much more about it later, but for now, a quick summary will do.
  4. Hyperlink titles of articles you refer to.

8.3 Post your finished writing.

  1. Click on the Chapter 8 ~ Disruptive Technologies group discussion from the Home screen in Canvas.
  2. Click the more_vert 3-dot More menu to see the Rubric.
  3. Compare your work to the Rubric to ensure you've written about the required topics.
  4. Copy your writing from your discussion document and paste it into a new Reply thread and save.
  5. Reply to another student's thread with more research and a hyperlink about one of these topics:
    • Their personal experience with how technology changed their behavior.
    • Their disruptive technology topic.
    This is your third paragraph.

How is hardware made and disposed of?

8.4 Research and write about hardware manufacturing.

  1. Open the What I’ve learned about computing document that you created in the previous chapter. Save the file with a new name so it reads What I've Learned First and Last Name Ch8.

    Integrated Circuits and Moore’s Law: Crash Course Computer Science #17. Add the movie to your bibliography tool.

    In the 8. How Hardware Manufacturing Works section's first paragraph, describe what you learned about the Moore's Law and the evolution and production of integrated circuits.

    If you need more detail, view: Zoom Into a Microchip for an indepth look at layered circuits.

    Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  2. Planned obsolescence: Why things don't last. Add the article to your bibliography tool.

    In the second paragraph, describe what you learned about the Europe Union's goals for combating planned obsolescence. Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  3. CBS News reports from the DRC's Chinese-owned cobolt mine.
    CBS News finds children mining cobalt for batteries in the Congo.
    Add the article and movie to your bibliography tool.

    In the third paragraph, describe what you learned about cobalt mining for electronic device batteries. Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Do the same or the article. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  4. Click to read: Understand Circular Flows. (Captioned option) Add the article to your bibliography tool. In the fourth paragraph, describe what you learned about restorative and regenerative circular economies. Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  5. China - World's dumping ground for Electronic Waste. Add the movie to your bibliography tool.

    In the fifth paragraph, describe what you learned about the electronic waste industry in China. Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  6. Click to read: Robots will take our jobs. We’d better plan now, before it’s too late. Add the article to your bibliography tool. In the sixth paragraph, describe what you learned about the robot economy. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  7. Click to read: The Jobs Robots Can’t Do (At Least Not Yet). Add the article to your bibliography tool. In the seventh paragraph, describe what you learned about the job market with robots at the core. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  8. The Singularity, Skynet, and the Future of Computing: Crash Course Computer Science #40. Add the movie to your bibliography tool.

    In the eighth paragraph, describe what you learned about the future of computing, the singularity, and ascension. Right-click on the movie's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the movie in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.

History of disruptive technologies

Print these instructions.

The following procedure has many steps, which are perhaps easier to follow when you print and check them off as you go. Hide/close + the previous section to avoid printing too many pages.

When a technology (tool or method) disrupts society it makes a major change in the way people think and behave. If you've only been alive a couple of decades, then you may not be aware of older technologies that have drastically affected your life.

To get a sense of that history, you and your classmates will collaborate on the development of an historical timeline of disruptive technologies which include hardware (electrical and mechanical devices) and software (the bits and bytes that make up the brains of a technology). You'll research a single technology or technology inventor, locate an image or movie that represents it, and write about it in your document and in a spreadsheet template. A JavaScript will display that spreadsheet data in this webpage (below).

8.5 Research and write about disruptive technologies.

  1. Refer back to the technology topic you wrote about in the discussion. Or, choose a different computer-related technology that you want to explore further.
  2. Research the technology to determine these three aspects:
    1. Who invented it when and what is it called?
    2. What does it do and how does it work?
    3. How has it disrupted society both positively and negatively?
  3. Launch the What I've Learned about Computing document and in the ninth paragraph in section 8. How Hardware Manufacturing Works, add the year, inventor name, invention name, and write at least 200 words about what it does, how it works, and how it has disrupted society positively and negatively.
  4. Locate a diagram, photo, or movie online that explains the technology.
    1. When you've located an image, then right-click on the image and choose Copy Image Address. The image address/URL you paste into the interactive spreadsheet cannot be a webpage, it must be the address of the image, which usually, that means the address/URL ends in .png, .jpg, or .svg.

      If you located a movie instead of an image, then use the Share menu to copy the movie link/address (not the Embed address).
    2. Under the ninth paragraph, Insert Image or Movie (or Online Movie) and use the address/URL you copied to paste into the Insert screen.
    3. Select the image (doesn't work for movies) and right-click to add Alt text (title and/or description field) and the publisher's name.
    4. Below the image/movie, paste the address/URL again so you can use it later in the interactive timeline.
    5. Copyright Statement: Remember how you used a copyright © symbol on your document's cover page? Use the symbol in conjunction with the media's date of publication and owner's name (not YouTube or Google Images). Copy the symbol from here: © (or Insert it from the Special Character menu) and paste it into the copyright statement, so it looks like this: © 1840 Alfred Edward Chalon
  5. Save the file with Ctrls or s.
  6. Keep this writing handy; you'll need it in the next step.

8.6 Collaborate in a spreadsheet to create a timeline.

Businesses often require employees to collaborate in files that track data. Data is typically tracked in columns and rows which create a table.

A spreadsheet is a series or rows and columns of text and numbers in tables, which can be manipulated in many ways. We'll explore more about them in Chapter 9. For now, you'll just add text and URLs to a predefined spreadsheet file that is the backbone of the interactive timeline displayed in step 8.7.

  1. Login to your OSU Google Account.
  2. Click to open this shared Google Sheets Template in the Chrome Browser. (No need to save it to your drive.)
  3. On the od1 sheet, Add 1 row using the button at the bottom of the existing list rows. Do not add more than 1 row. If you accidentally add 1000 rows, it will mess up the timeline. Delete all empty rows by selecting them with the row selector and clicking the Delete key. Also, do not add a new sheet.
  4. Type all your data from the previous research into this new row. Be careful not to edit anyone else's row.
  5. Ada Lovelace has been added as an example:
    Ada Lovelace was added to the timeline spreadsheet.
  6. In the new row, type the year of the invention in the Year column/cell.
  7. In the Display Date column/cell, type the year again.
  8. In the Headline column/cell, type the inventor's name and invention. Keep it short, just like the example: [inventor name] invented [invention name]...nothing more; not a full sentence. Example: Ada Lovelace invented Computer Programming.
  9. In the Text column/cell, type or paste in the writing you did in step 8.5.2.
  10. In the Media column/cell, paste in the address/URL of the image or movie you found to accompany your research (step from 8.5.4).
  11. In the Credit column/cell, paste in the copyright statement (from step 8.5.4.5).
  12. In the Caption column/cell, type a short descriptive phrase. Describe what is in the image or movie, not that it is an image or movie. Be specific.
  13. In the Student name column/cell, type your first and last name.
  14. Do not leave any blank rows, or your classmates will not be able to see all of them. To delete extra blank rows, click on any empty row selector in the far left column, right-click, and delete.

Doesn't your timeline entry look great!

Timeline entries should have a date, image or movie, title, description, image citation, and caption.

Your spreadsheet entries are now displayed below in an interactive timeline and should look something like this.

Timeline entries should have a date, a concise title, a detailed description, an image or movie, the copyright symbol with owner's name, and a caption to describe the image/movie.

View your entry in the timeline below to ensure that your image renders, you haven't written an overly-long headline, and that you covered all three required areas of research: who invented what, how does it work and what does it do, and how has it disrupted society positively and negatively. Edit the spreadsheet as needed.

8.7 Learn more from the collaboration.

Scroll through the timeline (below) and read your classmates' entries. Which entries are new to you? Which ones are intriguing?

Right-click on the timeline and choose Reload frame. The timeline is sitting in a frame, which may need to be refreshed before you can see your entry.

If interested, learn how to integrate spreadsheet data, the timeline JavaScript, and web pages at Northwest University's KnightLab.

  1. In the tenth paragraph of the 8. How Hardware Manufacturing Works section, write about the most interesting entry you found while viewing the interactive timeline (not your entry; a classmate's entry).
    Note the date, name, and its significance. How did it disrupt society?
  2. Add all the new bibliography entries (9 expected) to the end of the Bibliography section (last page) of your What I've Learned... document. Be sure to add author names, titles, publish dates, and publisher names if your tool did not provide them (for example, YouTube is not the author, title, or publisher of user-uploaded media). Select the list of entries and apply the Normal style as well as the format_list_numbered Numbered list icon. So that they can be easily located for scoring purposes, do not alphabetize the list.
  3. Save as the file with CtrlShifts or Shifts, and rename the file What I've Learned NAME Ch__. Replace NAME with your name. Replace __ with the chapter number. Next, create a PDF file:
    • From the File menu, choose Save As > PDF > Standard (for electronic and printing distribution).
      If you are using Word for Macintosh, then choose PDF > For Printing.
      Or, Ctrlp to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
    • From the File menu, choose Download as PDF.
    • From the File menu, choose Export to... and choose PDF.
      OR, p to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
  4. Check to confirm that hyperlinks work.
  5. Move all files to this course's folder in the Documents folder of your hard drive.

8.8 Submit the assignment.

  1. Click on the Canvas Home button and scroll down to the Assignment.
  2. Click the Assignment link.
  3. Upload the What I've Learned... PDF file.
  4. Confirm that it uploaded.
  5. Check the TurnItIn Report for plagiarized phrases and sentences. Review how to use TurnItIn.
  6. Either edit or quote the TurnItIn Report's highlighted passages in your original file and resave the PDF file.
  7. Upload the newer version in the Canvas Assignment.
  8. The Timeline is active already, so no need to submit a link to it.

Back up to multiple sources

Earlier, you saved a copy of your work with a new name. Now, copy that backup to a different location, such as:

  1. Cloud drive such as Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or Apple iCloud.
  2. A USB stick drive.
  3. Zip archive file.
  4. Turn on automatic backups.
    • Windows 10
      Learn to use the Windows File History feature to backup files to a new location.
    • MacOS
      Learn to use Time Machine for backup up automatically to external hard drive devices.

Because bad things happen to good people and their computers, you must back up every time you work on a project. Losing your work because of a technical glitch and lack of a backup will not provide you with a due date extension; it will only provide you with empathy.

Criteria to meet by the end of chapter 8

By the end of chapter 8, these items must be completed to earn all full points:

Discussion

  1. Discussed transportation, communication, and productivity technologies that have changed you personally.
  2. Discussed and cited current news about disruptive technologies.
  3. Replied to another student's thread with research and hyperlink related to their personal experiences or disruptive technology.

Timeline

  1. Timeline displays a unique entry that matches the writing in paragraph 9.

Writing

  1. First paragraph in section 8 describes Moore's Law and the development of integrated circuits.
  2. Second paragraph in section 8 describes the EU's goals for combating planned obsolescence.
  3. Third paragraph in section 8 describes cobalt mining for electronic device batteries.
  4. Fourth paragraph in section 8 describes restorative and regenerative circular economies.
  5. Fifth paragraph in section 8 describes the electronic waste industry in China.
  6. Sixth paragraph in section 8 describes the robot economy.
  7. Seventh paragraph in section 8 describes the job market with robots at the core.
  8. Eighth paragraph in section 8 describes the future of computing.
  9. Ninth paragraph in section 8 describes a disruptive technology (the one you added to the Timeline).
  10. Tenth paragraph in section 8 describes one other disruptive technology found in the Timeline.
  11. Document is free of plagiarism.
  12. Document is free of spelling and grammatical errors.
  13. Bibliography lists all new sources (9 expected).
  14. Document was submitted as a PDF file.

If you have questions about how to use any of the required technologies for this lesson or what the following criteria mean, please reread the relevant lessons, view the Zoom recordings, then ask the Instructor via the Canvas Inbox.

Check Canvas Home, Assignments, and Calendar for the most current Due date and time. The Available Until date and time constitutes a grace period, which can be used in an emergency, or if you are ill.