Oregon State University

CS 101: Applications and Implications of Computers

Oregon State University, College of Engineering

Chapter 9 ~ The State
of Computing

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In the previous 8 chapters, you learned about how computer technology works and some of the positive and negative consequences of that technology. And if you're looking at your news feed on a regular basis, you'll notice even bigger problems which governments are trying to resolve (or perpetuate). In this chapter, you'll research and write about four major issues that countries around the world are struggling with. Should we allow the censoring of some content? Should we use technology to enact justice? Should everyone have the right to free high-speed internet access, or should some people pay more for higher speeds and better service at the expense of others less fortunate?

Most of the students in this course are American citizens and as citizens, you are obligated to tell your government representatives what you think is the right course of action. One way to do that is to write or call your representative. To encourage you to do that, we'll learn to manipulate a set of data which is freely accessible through the USA and State of Oregon. We'll learn more about the political makeup of Oregonians in the process.

Group Discussion

Start a new word processing document or Keep note and write about the reading and research below. Write in complete sentences. Hyperlink the titles of articles in your writing so your groupmates can quickly jump to them. Check spelling and grammar. After posting your finished writing, reply to another student's thread.

9.1 Share an incidence in the news.

  1. Add the Tech and Extreme Tech tabs to the SmartNews app if you didn't already.
  2. View the Tech, Extreme Tech, Reuters, AP, and FastCompany feeds of the SmartNews app and use Google, Google Scholar, Bing, Library Databases, or consult Answerland.org.
  3. Find at least one incidence of one of these topics: Censorship , Net neutrality , Digital divide , or Mobile justice.
  4. In the first paragraph, write a quick summary of what you learned and cite the source of the article by hyperlinking its title.

9.2 Share new laws, acts, or initiatives.

  1. In the second paragraph, write about whether the affected countries from the previous article have:
    • Enacted new laws, acts, or initiatives to help citizens' rights or access.
    • Enacted new laws, acts, or initiatives to hinder citizens' rights or access.
  2. Use Google, Google Scholar, Bing, or Library Databases to locate country-related legal information.
  3. Chat with an Answerland.org librarian if you are unable to locate legal information.
  4. Cite the source(s) of the article(s) by hyperlinking its title.

9.3 Post your finished writing.

  1. Click on the Click on the Chapter 9 ~ Recent Social Problems group discussion from the Home screen in Canvas.
  2. Click the more_vert 3-dot More menu to see the Rubric.
  3. Compare your work to the Rubric to ensure you've written about the required topics.
  4. Copy your writing from your discussion document and paste it into a new Reply thread and save.
  5. Reply to another student's thread with more detail about one of these topics and cite the source:
    • The incidence they wrote about.
    • The laws, acts, initiatives they wrote about.
    This is your third paragraph.

The State of Computing

What is the makeup of the Oregon House of Representatives? In this activity, you'll manipulate freely-available data about our representatives and generate a Pivot Table, Chart, and vLookup merge to analyze and use the data. To earn extra credit, locate, import, and manipulate a list of your own state's or country's representatives.

9.4 Research and write about the state of computing.

  1. Open the What I’ve learned about computing document that you created in the previous chapter. Save the file with a new name so it reads What I've Learned First and Last Name Ch9.
  2. Click to read: Freedom on the Net 2018: The Rise of Digital Authoritarianism. Add the article to your bibliography tool. Feel free to reference other related reports by Freedom House, including their 2020 Internet Freedom Scores by Country.
    Freedom of the Net's internet freedom scores for 2019.
  3. In the 9. The State of Computing section, you'll be synthesizing rather than simply summarizing what you learned from the report and additional research. Cover the following specific topics.
    • In paragraph one, summarize what you learned about Freedom House's key findings and major developments.
    • In paragraph two, synthesize what you learned about global internet censorship and disinformation/propaganda.
    • In paragraph three, synthesize what you learned about net neutrality around the world.
    • In paragraph four, synthesize what you learned about the digital divide around the world.
    • In paragraph five, synthesize about what you learned about mobile/social justice (or lack of justice) or digital activism around the world.
  4. Right-click on the Freedom House's article title (above) and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your first paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink.
  5. Hyperlink any other sources you included in your synthesized writing.
  6. Select the required keywords in your paragraphs and apply the Bold style.
  7. Add the new bibliography entry(s) to the end of the Bibliography section (last page) of your What I've Learned... document. Select the list of entries and apply the Normal style as well as apply the format_list_numbered Numbered list icon. So that they can be easily located for scoring purposes, do not alphabetize the list.

What are spreadsheets and databases?

9.5 Write about spreadsheets and databases.

In the last chapter, we learned to input data into a spreadsheet table so we could contribute to a larger set of meaningful data. The sets of data were consistent — each entry had a title, a date, a picture, a URL, etc. — and all the data was visible on a single table. The simple rows and columns of a single table of data is referred to as flat. Sets of flat data are typically manipulated in a spreadsheet file due to its simplicity. In this chapter, we'll manipulate another set of flat data from a single table using Pivot tables. We'll also visualize (or chart) that data so it is easy to understand at a glance.

Another kind of data manipulation involves relational data tables where one row or column interacts dynamically with another to eliminate redundancy. Related columns or rows in a data sheet use keys or indexes to correlate shared data. Complex sets of data with keys/indexes and relationships are typically referred to as databases. We'll experiment with that too, using a vertical "lookup" function.

  1. Open your existing What I've Learned about Computing word processing document. In the 9. The State of Computing section's sixth paragraph describe the difference between spreadsheets and databases. Also include a sentence that says, "Examples of data manipulation are provided at the end of the document." (which will be true when you complete the following spreadsheet activities).
  2. Save as the file with CtrlShifts or Shifts, and rename the file What I've Learned NAME Ch__. Replace NAME with your name. Replace __ with the chapter number. Next, create a PDF file:
    • From the File menu, choose Save As > PDF > Standard (for electronic and printing distribution).
      If you are using Word for Macintosh, then choose PDF > For Printing.
      Or, Ctrlp to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
    • From the File menu, choose Download as PDF.
    • From the File menu, choose Export to... and choose PDF.
      OR, p to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
  3. Check to confirm that hyperlinks work.
  4. Move all files to this course's folder in the Documents folder of your hard drive.

9.6 Get to know a typical spreadsheet application user interface:

  1. Launch a spreadsheet application:
    • Google Sheets
    • Microsoft Excel
  2. Open a Blank worksheet file.
  3. Compare your application's user interface with the diagram below. All the options you see here are available and usually located in the same places:
    Major components of a spreadsheet user interface, including text formatting, positioning, objects, worksheets, and function manipulation.
    Right-click and open this diagram in a new tab if you want to zoom in on it.
  4. Click around your application to get to know the locations of number formatting, cell formatting, text positioning, object insertion, row and column selection, worksheets, and function input.
  5. In some cases, you may need to use the search option to find it a specific tab or menu.

Manipulating spreadsheets

Print these instructions.

The following procedure has many steps, which are perhaps easier to follow when you print and check them off as you go. Hide/close + the previous section to avoid printing too many pages.

9.7 Manipulate a data table.

Government-funded data collection is often freely available to citizens as part of the USA Freedom of Information Act. The State of Oregon posts much of their data on the OpenData website. For the following lessons, we'll use the 2020 Oregon Voter Registration and House of Representatives data files.

  1. From the Oregon OpenData website, navigate to the Voter Registration by County page for 2020.
    Export the Filtered .CSV file to your local hard drive.
    Export a filtered CSV file of Voter registration data from the Oregon website.
  2. Launch a spreadsheet application:
    • Google Sheets
    • Microsoft Excel
  3. Open a Blank worksheet file (you might already have one open).
  4. Import the .CSV file:
    • File > Import the Voter_Registration_Data.csv file so that it replaces existing data in the blank file.
      Import using the Default import settings. Carrie Vosika demonstrates making a Pivot table in Google Sheets. Captioned.
    • Data > Get External Data > From Text or From Text/CSV the Voter_Registration_Data.csv file so that it replaces existing data in the blank file.
      Import using the Default import settings. Shift-click and scroll to the right to select all 8 columns.
  5. Save/move the resulting file to your CS 101 folder for easy access.
  6. Name the file Oregon-Counties-Parties-Representatives.
  7. Select the first row using the row selector. While the row is highlighted,
    • View > Freeze > 1 row to create a header for the data.
      Freeze the first row to make it a header.
    • View > Freeze Panes > Freeze Top Row to create a header for the data.
      Freeze the first row to make it a header.
  8. Select all of the columns by clicking the Column/Row selector in the top left corner of the worksheet.
    Click the corner of the sheet to select all columns and rows.
  9. While the three or more columns are selected:
    • From the Data menu choose Pivot table... on a new sheet.
      Select Pivot table from the Data menu while columns are selected.
    • From the Insert menu choose Pivot Table.
      Select Pivot table from the Insert menu while columns are selected.
      If you get an error, then go back and select all the columns.
  10. On the Pivot table's right pane, select and add the county, party, and count fields to the rows and columns:
    • Add County to the Row option and choose Ascending by County and Show totals.
      Add a row of ascending by county values.
      Add Party to the Column option and choose Ascending by Party and Show totals.
      Add a column of ascending by party values.
      Add Count(V.ID) to the Value option and choose SUM by % of Grand Total.
      Add a column of ascending by party values.
      1. Using the field checkboxes, choose County, Party, and Count(V.ID).
      2. Drag the Party menu from the Row box into the Column box.
      3. Drag the Count(V.ID) menu from the Row box into the Values box.
        Add a County Row, Party Column, and Count Value.
      4. From the Analyze menu, choose Field Settings. You may have to click on the table to get it to activate the Pivot table sub-tabs/menus, which includes the Analyze tab. (If you accidentally hid the Field List pane, then right-click on the table heading and choose Show Field List.) Click and drag to select the data in these columns: C (Democrat), D (Independent), G (Nonaffiliated), J (Republican), Selecting the entire column will not work; select just the data in those columns..
      5. Click on the Values > Count of to activate the Summarize screen.
        Use the down arrow on the Count value to activate the Sum screen.
        Or click the Analyze > Field Settings menu.
        In the Sum tab, choose Sum. Then, click the the Show Values tab of that same screen to choose % of Grand Total. Click OK.
        Adjust the field settings.
      6. Additional help: You can also use the search field to find field settings. If that doesn't work, then Load the Analysis Toolpack.
  11. To improve the overall impression of the data, we'll eliminate parties with very few members to focus on major players.
    • Shift-click on the blank column and Constitution party column to select them. Right-click to Hide Column. Do the same for Libertarian, Other, Pacific Green, Progressive, and Working Families columns, leaving only the major parties active: Democrats, Independents, Non-affiliated, and Republicans.
      Hide columns from the Pivot table.

      Also, hide row 3 if it is blank.
    • Click on the Column Labels filter icon in Column B. De-select all the column labels, then select only the major parties: Democrats, Independents, Non-affiliated, and Republicans.
      Select only the columns you want to show.

      Also, hide row 3 and/or column B if they are blank.
  12. Notice the data is sorted by county and the grand total tells us there are more registered Democrats and non-affiliated people than registered Republicans. If you got some other result, revise the Pivot Table's Row, Column, and Value options. If you have blank rows or columns, right-click on each and choose Hide Column or Hide Row to remove them.
    A complete Pivot table.
  13. The Pivot table resides in its own worksheet. To differentiate it from future worksheets, double-click on the sheet name to change it to Major Parties by County.
    Rename the Pivot sheet.
    If the sheet where you first imported the .CSV file doesn't have a new name, change it to: Voter_Registration_Data.
  14. To prepare for the next steps, click and drag from the top left cell to the bottom right cell of the Pivot table data... but do not include the grand total row or column:
    Select only the label and data cells to make a chart; not the calculated cells.
  15. Save the file with Ctrls or s.

9.8 Visualize the data in a chart.

To better visualize the percentages of people registered in each party, we'll design a chart. Charts can remove the tediousness of comparing and evaluating each complex value 00.00% with another.

  1. With the Major Parties by County Pivot worksheet active,
    • From the Insert menu choose Chart. From the Chart editor Panel's Chart type menu choose Stacked Bar Chart. Then, from the Stacking menu choose Standard. Or, from the Chart Type menu choose Stacked Bar Chart.
      Choose the stacked bar style. Julia Cherney demonstrates how to make a stacked bar chart from the new Pivot table. (2020)
    • From the PivotTable Tools tab > Analyze or Design tab choose PivotChart. Choose the Bar and Stacking Bar style.
      Choose the stacked bar style. Tyler Dent demonstrates how to make a stacked bar chart from the new Pivot table. (2018) Captioned.
  2. Move the chart to a new worksheet:
    • Click the tiny 3-dot vertical menu at the top right corner of the new chart: Choose Move to new sheet.
      Move the chart to a new sheet.
    • From the PivotTable Tools and Analyze menu choose Move Chart > New sheet.
      Move the chart to a new sheet.
  3. Double-click the worksheet name and change it to Major Parties Chart.
  4. Change the chart's title text to Major Party Affiliations in Oregon 2020 and change it and the axis color to bright Blue (the brightest option) and font to Tahoma.
    • Edit Chart and from the Customize Panel's Chart style menu choose Tahoma font and check the Compare Mode box. Then,
      • From the Chart & axis titles menu update the color to bright Blue and font-weight to bold. The Tahoma font should get inherited from the Chart Style.
      • From the Series menu check the Total data labels box.
      • From the Horizontal and Vertical menus, change the text color to bright Blue and font-weight to bold.

      Change the title and labels to cornflower blue.
    • From the PivotChart Tools > Design tab choose Add Chart Element > Chart Title menu, choose Above Chart. Update the name of the chart.
      Add a title and axis elements to the chart.
      Update the vertical Axis to say County and change its color to bright Blue (if allowed).
      Select the vertical labels and change their colors to bright Blue using the Format Chart pane > Text Options > Color Picker.
      Change the title and axis text color to blue. Do the same for the horizontal labels and the title.
  5. Change the chart's Legend orientation to vertical on the right and the color to bright Blue:
    • Click on the Legend. From the Customize Panel's Chart style menu for Legend, choose Right from the Position menu and update the text color to bright Blue.
      Change the legend from horizontal to vertical on the right with blue text.
    • If the Legend shows too many parties, use its down-arrow ↓ to deselect all but Democrat, Independent, Nonaffiliated, and Republican parties.

      Right-click on the Legend and choose Format Legend. From the Legend Option tab, choose Right from the Legend Position menu. From the Text Options tab, choose bright Blue from the text color picker.
      Position the legend to the right.Change the color of the legend to blue.
  6. Save the file with Ctrls or s.

Doesn't your chart look great!

A Pivot table bar chart with legend.

The results of your chart design should look something like this.

Notice that the title and labels are bright blue, the chart bars are horizontally stacked, and the legend is in the top right corner (or to the right middle edge).

If you used the Google Sheets application, then you can also display the values at the end of each bar. Excel does not allow this, so it is optional.

From some versions of Excel, the chart will result in different colors, spacing, and sorting: A Pivot table bar chart with legend.

Need the Instructor's help?

If you have questions about completing the technical skills or the writing, you can share your file with the instructor.

  • Share a Google file:
    1. With your file open, click the Sharing button at the top right of the screen. Or, if the file is not open but listed in the Drive, right-click it to choose the Share menu.
    2. Click the Get Link box to update the OSU Settings and copy the link:
      Change settings so that only OSU people can view. Copy the link.
    3. Ignore the Share with People and Groups box for this course.
      Don't share your files this way for this course.
    4. Paste the URL into the Canvas Inbox message or Assignment Comment box, along with your questions. Note which step number you're stuck on.
  • Share a Microsoft file:
    1. Login to your OSU OneDrive account from the browser.
    2. Drag the file from your hard drive to the OSU OneDrive file list in the browser to transfer it there.
    3. Beside the file name in the list, click the Share icon:
      Click the Share icon for the file to change the settings.
    4. Choose the settings provided in the screenshot below:
      Change settings so that only OSU people can view it without editing or downloading.
    5. Copy the link so you can provide it to the instructor or in the Assignment Comment box.
      Click the Copy Link icon. Select and copy the link.
    6. Paste the URL into the Canvas Inbox message or Assignment Comment box, along with your questions. Note which step number you're stuck on.

9.9 Import more data.

Merging one set of data with another can help pinpoint specific related items. In this lesson, we'll import data of the Representatives for the House branch of the Oregon government then modify the house district number so it becomes the 'key' between it and the Voter_Registration_Data. The key will allow us to merge County data with the Representatives data.

  1. From the Oregon government website, navigate to the Oregon House​ of Representatives website and download CSV Contact Data to your drive's CS 101 folder. The resulting file will be called house.csv.
    Look for the CSV link at the bottom of the right column.
  2. Import the .CSV file:
    • From your existing oregon-county-parties-representatives spreadsheet file, File > Import the house.csv file. Choose Insert new sheet for the destination.
      Import the data into a new worksheet. Ninami Holman demonstrates how to import the house.csv file into Google Sheets. (2019) Captioned.
    • From your existing oregon-county-parties-representatives spreadsheet file, click the + Add worksheet icon to add a new worksheet. From the Data menu choose From Text and locate the the house.csv file to import.
      If you use the Text Import Wizard, then be sure to scroll to the right to select all 7 columns in screen 3.
      Import using the Default import settings. Choose the new/existing worksheet for the destination.
  3. Double-click the name of the worksheet and name it Representatives.
    Rename the sheet.
  4. Save the file with Ctrls or s.

9.10 Lookup and merge vertical data.

To make the key for each sheet, modify the House District columns in both sheets:

  1. Look at the Voter_Registration_Data worksheet.
    • Click/hold and move the HD_NAME column left to position A in the table.
      Move the column to the left.
    • Click/hold and move the HD_NAME column left to position A in the table.
      Move the column to the left.
      OR, cut Commandx and select the HD_NAME column then right-click on the A column to choose Insert Cut Cells.
  2. So that we can more easily match one set of data with another, we'll remove text that might get in the way. We'll change a string of text and number to just a number.
    • Edit > Find and Replace.... In the Find field, type house district. In the Replace field, type a single space. Click Replace All.
      Find the text string and replace it with a space.
      Click Done.
    • Ctrlf > Replace. In the Find field, type house district. In the Replace field, type a single space. Click Replace All.
      Find the text string and replace it with a space.
  3. Look at the Representatives worksheet.
    • Click/hold and move the District Number column left to position A in the table.
      Move the column to the left.
    • Click/hold and move the District Number column left to position A in the table.
      Move the column to the left.
      OR, cut Commandx and select the District Number column then right-click on the A column to choose Insert Cut Cells.
  4. Click row 1 to select it then freeze it to make column headers.
    • View > Freeze > 1 row to create a header for the data.
      Freeze the top row to create headings.
    • View > Freeze Panes > Freeze Top Row to create a header for the data.
      Freeze the first row to make it a header.
  5. Click into the cell at column H row 1 and type County.
    Add County as the column heading.
  6. Now, we'll perform a VLOOKUP function to merge the County data from the Voter_ worksheet into the new column County column of the Representatives sheet. Click into the cell at column H row 2. Type an = sign and the function VLOOKUP. Provide 4 parameters to give the function enough information to calculate.
    The formula for VLOOKUP has 4 values.
    • A2 is the column and row that will provide the matching key with the Voter worksheet.
    • Voter_Registration_Data!A2:B1288 is the range of data to lookup from cell A2 through cell B1288 of the Voter worksheet.
      • If the Voter_ worksheet name uses only lower case letters, or has a different name, then replace that worksheet name in the function with the exact spelling of your worksheet name. You might need to revise the worksheet name or the formula range name. They must match.
      • Or, you can click into the formula, then into the worksheet and select those 1288 rows of data in the two columns.
      • Or copy this sheet name and range: Voter_Registration_Data!A2:B1288.
    • 2 is the column of data from the Voter worksheet that we'll merge into the Representatives worksheet.
    • FALSE is the default for exact matches.
    Now, you should see Marion county in column H of District 22 row.
    Results of the VLOOKUP function for one row.
  7. To confirm that the correct county is displaying in the Representatives worksheet, Sort or search for district 22 in the first column of the Voter worksheet.
  8. To use the same formula for all remaining Representatives, Select the cell H2 on the Representatives worksheet. Drag the bottom right handle straight down to row 61.
    Drag the cell down to apply the same formula to other rows.

    And like magic, the rest of the rows take on the VLOOKUP formula and fill in the correlating counties!
    Results of the VLOOKUP function for several rows.
  9. To improve the readability of this worksheet, wrap and resize all of the columns to display all their data rather than cut it off. Select column E Addresses then:
    • Click the Format > Text wrapping > Wrap or use the toolbar's icon to wrap text inside of each cell rather than hide it on the right.
      Add textwrapping to long cells of data.
    • Click the Home > Wrap Text > Wrap or use the toolbar's icon to wrap text inside of each cell rather than hide it on the right.
      Add textwrapping to long cells of data.
      You might also have to click Home > Format > Autofit Row Height.
  10. Do the same for the Email and Web Address columns.
  11. Do the same for Row 1 and reduce the size of column A District Numbers by dragging its column selector border to the left.
    Increase or decrease column width.
  12. Save the file with Ctrls or s.

Extra Credit: Earn 2 more points of extra credit by importing the Oregon Senate contact list into a new sheet in the same spreadsheet file, moving the District Number column to position A (to create a Key), and using VLookup to add the County to the last column. Resize and text wrap the columns to improve readability.

Doesn't your sheet look great!

Add textwrapping and resizing to long cells of data.

The results of your worksheet should look something like this.

Notice that the headers wrap, the cells wrap so the addresses are easy to read, and the counties are displaying at the end of each row.

9.11 Output datasheets to merge with the document.

  1. Create a PDF file with just the Pivot table, Chart, and VLOOKUP worksheets (do not print the long Voter Registration worksheet). Each worksheet should print in Portrait orientation (vertically) and take up as much room on the page as possible. The Representatives and Senate worksheets should print with all columns fitting across one page which allows the rows to print on multiple pages. Use these details to get the best results:
    Output created by printing PDF files of three different worksheets.
    • Sarah Strangfield demonstrates how to print and merge the three sheets with the What I've Learned document. (Fall 2019)
      1. From the File menu choose Download as... PDF.
      2. From the Export menu choose Workbook.
      3. From the Selection menu uncheck the Voter worksheet box. We do not want to print 1200+ rows.
        From the Workbook list, choose all but the Voter Registration Data sheet.
      4. From the Paper Size menu, choose Letter.
      5. Click the Portrait Page orientation option.
      6. From the Scale menu, choose Fit to width.
      7. From the Margins menu, choose Narrow.
      8. From the Headers & Footers menu, check the Page Numbers, Workbook Title, Sheet Name, and Repeat frozen rows boxes.
        Download a PDF file of just three worksheets.
      9. You may need to print each worksheet individually.
    • First, Shift-click the Pivot, Chart, and VLOOKup worksheets tabs to select them.
      Select the three new worksheets before printing. Then, from the File menu choose Print. Change settings to:
      1. Print Active Worksheets.
        Print to a PDF file which includes just three worksheets.
      2. If you selected the three worksheets then you won't need to choose the page numbers. Do not print the 1200+ rows of the Voter Registration worksheet. Page numbers may vary depending on the order of your worksheets.
      3. Portrait Orientation.
      4. Letter 8.5x11 paper size.
      5. Narrow Margins.
      6. Fit all Columns on One Page (adjust this for each page as needed). You might need to access the Custom Margins menu to adjust the Scaling settings:
        Choose Customize Margins to access the Fitting settings.
        Fit all columns across one page and allow rows to take up 2 or 3 pages.
  2. Name the file with your first and last name, like this: lastname-firstname-data.pdf.
  3. To reduce confusion, TurnItIn will need one file to review, so learn to merge multiple PDF files:
    1. At I Love PDF Merge tool. use the Choose File buttons to upload the 1) What I've Learned about Computing PDF file you made in step 9.2.6 and the 2) the lastname-firstname-data.PDF file you made in step 9.7.1.
    2. Arrange them so that the What I've Learned document prints before the lastname-firstname-data.PDF file.
    3. Save the ilovepdf_merged.pdf file to your hard drive in the CS 101 folder.
    4. Change the file name to reflect what-ive-learned-NAME-ch9-merged.pdf.
    5. Look at the file to ensure the Table of Contents cover page is first and the spreadsheets are last in the order of pages.

9.12 Submit the assignment.

  1. Upload the merged PDF file on the Canvas Assignment page.
  2. Confirm that it uploaded.
  3. Check the TurnItIn Report for plagiarized phrases and sentences.
  4. Either edit or quote those highlighted passages in your original file and resave the PDF file.
  5. Upload the newer version in the Canvas Assignment Submission Details screen.

9.13 Extra Credit: Find your own state's or country's list of representatives.

  • Navigate to your state/province or country website and look for a list of regional government representatives.
  • Export the list to a .CSV file if possible. A tab-separated text file should also work.
  • Import the list into a new spreadsheet file.
  • Resize and wrap the fields to improve readability.
  • Export the list to PDF file.
  • Attach it in the Assignment --> Submission Details --> Commenting area to earn 1 point of extra credit.

Back up to multiple sources

Earlier, you saved a copy of your work with a new name. Now, copy that backup to a different location, such as:

  1. Cloud drive such as Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or Apple iCloud.
  2. A USB stick drive.
  3. Zip archive file.
  4. Turn on automatic backups.
    • Windows 10
      Learn to use the Windows File History feature to backup files to a new location.
    • MacOS
      Learn to use Time Machine for backup up automatically to external hard drive devices.

Because bad things happen to good people and their computers, you must back up every time you work on a project. Losing your work because of a technical glitch and lack of a backup will not provide you with a due date extension; it will only provide you with empathy.

Criteria to meet by the end of chapter 9

If you have questions about how to use any of the required technologies for this lesson or what the following criteria mean, please reread the relevant lessons, view the Zoom recordings, then ask the Instructor via the Canvas Inbox.

Check Canvas Home, Assignments, and Calendar for the most current Due date and time. The Available Until date and time constitutes a grace period, which can be used in an emergency, or if you are ill.

By the end of chapter 9, these items must be completed to earn full points:

Discussion

  1. Discussed and cited recent social issues highlighted in the news.
  2. Discussed and cited new laws, acts, or initiatives which help or hinder citizens' rights.
  3. Replied to another person's thread and cited additional research.

Writing

  1. First paragraph in section 9 summarizes Freedom House's key findings and major developments.
  2. Second paragraph in section 9 synthesizes global internet censorship.
  3. Third paragraph in section 9 synthesizes net neutrality around the world.
  4. Fourth paragraph in section 9 synthesizes digital divide around the world.
  5. Fifth paragraph in section 9 synthesizes mobile/social justice around the world.
  6. Sixth paragraph in section 9 describes the difference between spreadsheets and databases.
  7. Document is free of plagiarism.
  8. Document is free of spelling and grammatical errors.
  9. Bibliography lists all new sources (at least 1).

Spreadsheet

  1. Spreadsheet Pivot table displays grand totals by Oregon county.
  2. Spreadsheet Pivot table displays Democrats, Independents, Nonaffiliated, and Republican percentages in columns. All other parties are hidden.
  3. Spreadsheet Chart displays Oregon county party affiliations in a horizontally stacked bar chart.
  4. Spreadsheet Chart displays percentages for each party by color (values at the end of the row are optional).
  5. Spreadsheet Chart title and labels are bright Blue.
  6. Spreadsheet Chart legend displays in the top right corner or the middle right edge.
  7. Spreadsheet VLOOKUP displays unique and correlating counties at the end of each Representatives row.
  8. Spreadsheet VLOOKUP displays all of the Representatives address cells with text wrapping.
  9. Spreadsheet VLOOKUP displays all of the Representatives web address with column resizing.
  10. Spreadsheet Pivot, Chart, and VLOOKUP output was merged with the What I've Learned document.
  11. Merged document was submitted as a PDF file.
  12. Extra Credit: Spreadsheet VLOOKUP displays counties, text wrapping, and resizing for each Senate row.
  13. Extra Credit: Locate, import, and output a PDF list of your own state's or country's representatives.