Oregon State University

CS 101: Applications and Implications of Computers

Oregon State University, College of Engineering

Chapter 2 ~ Prepare to Succeed!

⬆ Shiftrefresh Shift-Refresh this page to see the most up-to-date instructions.

You can see from This Week's Objectives at the right that we'll be discussing the notion that writing about new concepts is a better way to learn than by memorizing them.

After the discussion, we'll review writing and word processing skills. To ensure they are at a professional level by the time you leave this course, you'll format the existing document from Chapter 1 so that it has a table of contents, semantic markup, customized typography, page numbering, and proper spacing. These skills will help you in future writing projects.

All of the upcoming projects for this course will be added to this document so that, by the end, you've written a 30-page paper about computer science!

Group Discussion

Print these instructions.

The following procedure has many steps, which are perhaps easier to follow when you print and check them off as you go. Hide/close + the previous section to avoid printing too many pages.

Each week's discussion will be different from the previous week, so follow instructions carefully to participate fully. When in doubt, ask the instructor via the Canvas Inbox.

2.1 Learn to use Keep.

  1. Login to your OSU Google Account.
  2. Launch Keep.Google.com using the Chrome browser on your computer.
  3. Install the Keep extension in your Chrome browser to use the quick-add button (Use instead of bookmarks).
    • From Chrome's 3-dot more_vert More menu on the left of the address bar,
    • choose More Tools > Extensions > Web Store to search for the tool and install it.
  4. Install the Keep app on your phone to see how smoothly lists can be synced from device to device. If you don't have a smartphone, skip to the next step.
  5. Experiment with:
    • Take a Note and turn it into a list using the Checkbox function.
    • Add Labels. Make one for this chapter's topic: CS 101 Ch 1 Writing vs Quizzes. Make another one for next week's chapter for for another course.
    • Capture images. Also capture the URL for the site that published the image, rather than the Google Images URL.
    • Share the list with a friend, groupmate, or one of your other accounts.
    • Draw and hand-write a note.
  6. As you complete the upcoming Research in step 2.2, Keep journal/news articles, movies, diagrams and charts that you find. Add titles and notes to each kept item that addresses the benefits and drawbacks of writing versus quiz-taking.

2.2 Research concepts.

  1. Research concepts related to writing to learn versus memorizing facts to take quizzes.
  2. Use Keep to keep track of the search strings and questions you used to locate the information. Such as...
    • "How does writing about computer science help students learn it?"
    • "Is writing to learn better than memorizing facts?"
    • "Is quiz-taking as effective as writing to learn?"
  3. What other questions can you ask yourself, your group, and Google to help you find out more?
  4. Also keep notes about the benefits and drawbacks of writing vs quiz-taking that you learned from reading the articles you found.
  5. Also, analyze your use of Keep...think about how you like or don't like using it for note-taking. Mention which features you tried and how it compares to other research note-taking applications you've tried.

2.3 Save your research.

  1. Select each of your kept items by clicking the checkmark icon on each, or click-dragging to select them.
  2. Click the blue 3-dot more_vert More menu to copy the items to a Google Doc.
  3. Open the resulting Google Doc and finish writing paragraphs about:
    • The questions you devised to help with the research.
    • Notes about the benefits and drawbacks from the sources you kept.
    • Your opinion of using Keep for note-taking.
  4. Write in complete sentences rather than lists. Check grammar and spelling.

2.4 Post your finished writing.

  1. Click on the Chapter 2 ~ Writing VS Quizzes group discussion from the Home screen in Canvas.
  2. Click the 3-dot more_vert More menu to see the Rubric.
  3. Compare your work to the Rubric to ensure you've written about the three required topics in paragraphs (rather than lists).
  4. Copy your writing from the document and paste it into a new Reply thread and save.
  5. Reply to another student's thread with more detail about writing to learn and/or using Keep. Cite the articles you refer to by hyperlinking their titles. Adhere to the Writing Requirements.

Design the word processing document

Print these instructions.

The following procedure has many steps, which are perhaps easier to follow when you print and check them off as you go. Hide/close + the previous section to avoid printing too many pages.

A word processing document allows us to write, style, and edit text for research papers, letters and memos, and even brochures, posters, and books. They make writing and formatting text easy with built-in tools for a wide variety of online and printed materials.

The diagram below outlines some of the most common options regardless of the brand. This diagram is from Google Docs but Microsoft Word, and Apple Pages also provide the same tools.

The word processing user interface is generally universal.

2.5 Launch the word processor.

  • Microsoft Word
  • Google Docs

Open the What I’ve learned about computing document that you created in the previous chapter. Save the file with a new name so it reads What I've Learned First and Last Name Ch2.

2.6 Update the normal body font.

Due to the hundreds of items that TAs and the Instructor must score, eye fatigue is a constant problem. Using the required font in size 12 will help ensure we can quickly read your work. Do not choose any other fonts for your projects.

Confirm that you have the new font correct (you may have done this step in Chapter 1). Change the Normal or Body text style to Tahoma size 12pt:

  • With the text selected, click the Style or Format menu. Choose the Apply and Modify menus. Change the font to Tahoma and the font size to 12pt. Also, now is a good time to adjust the paragraph formatting so that the first-line indent is .25, the spacing after is 10pt, and the line spacing is at least 16pt. Observe the order of steps then click OK.
    Apply the modified font to the Normal style. Doing all of these changes now means you don't have to do some of the remaining style changes in future steps.
  • With the text selected, change the font to Tahoma and the font size to 12pt. Click the arrow next to the Normal Text menu. Choose Update Normal Text to Match..
    Apply the modified font to the Normal Text style.

2.7 Create indented first lines of paragraphs.

Select all Ctrl-a or ⌘-a of the text in the document and set the first line of each paragraph to indent 1/4 of an inch:

  • From the View tab, click the Ruler checkbox. Move the top ruler slider to the right.
    Move the indent slider to the right on the ruler.
    If you modified the Normal style already, you don't need to do this step.
  • Slide the indenting ruler to .25 inches to the right and update the Normal Text to match.
    Move the indent slider to the right on the ruler.
    Apply the modified font to the Normal Text style.

2.8 Add line spacing and space after paragraphs.

While the text is still selected, customize the line spacing to 1.15 and the space after paragraphs to 10:

  • With the text selected, confirm that you set the spacing after to 10pt and the line spacing to at least 16pt. Refer to the screenshot in step 2.6 above.
  • From the Vertical Alignment menu, choose Custom spacing... then Line Spacing > 1.15 and After > 10. Update the Normal Text to match.
    Locate the Customize line spacing menu. Customize the line spacing and space after paragraphs.
    Apply the modified font to the Normal Text style.

2.9 Turn on the page navigational feature.

Turn on the navigation/outline feature so you can see the structure of your document evolving as you complete the remaining steps. The list of sections will show up on the side of your screen so you can quickly jump to a specific page, rather than scroll, to reduce eye fatigue. The document will get very long after several weeks, so use the navigation to move quickly through your document.

The writing prompts you added earlier will become section headings in step 2.10, which are used by the navigation/outline function. They will also be used by the dynamic Table of Contents feature in step 2.13.

  • For Word in Windows, choose the View menu then Navigation Pane. For Word in MacOS, choose View menu then SidebarDocument Map.
    Turn on Navigation Pane from the View menu.
  • From the View menu, choose Outlining.
    Turn on outlining from the View menu.

2.10 Apply heading styles.

  1. Select the first prompt by triple-clicking on it. (The first prompt is the first line; the heading/name of your file at the very top.)
    • From the Home menu's Style or Format pane, and choose Heading 1:
      Choose heading 1 from the style menu.
    • From the Style menu and choose Heading 1:
      Choose heading 1 from the style menu.
  2. Select the second prompt by triple-clicking on it. From the Style menu and choose Heading 2. If your application's Heading 2 is not larger and bolder than the Normal style, then add bold and size 14.
  3. Select the Table of Contents prompt by triple-clicking on it. From the Style menu and choose Heading 3. Do the same for the 1 Introductions prompt.
  4. Scroll down to the remaining prompts which are located under the chapter 1 writing you did earlier. Select the remaining prompts and from the Style or Format menu and choose heading 3.
  5. The heading should now look something like this:
    Three levels of heading are styled.
  6. Notice also that the Outline now shows each page heading. Click on one to navigate from page to page.

2.11 Update the font styles.

  1. Triple-click on the cover page's heading 1. Change the color to orange, font size to 20, the style to bold italic, and apply an underline.
  2. From the Styles or Format menu or pane, choose the font name and change the default style to match the new style so that anytime you choose a heading 1 style, they'll match what you designed:
    • There are multiple ways to update the standard styles depending on the platform and version of Word you are using. Update the existing Heading 1 style to Tahoma orange bold italic underline size 20 using one of these methods:
      1. Right-click on the Heading 1 style and choose Update to Match Selection.
        Update default heading 1 styles.
      2. From the Home tab's Style or Formatmenu, choose Apply Styles.... Or, from the Styles Pane, click the down arrow next to the Heading 1 option.
        Update default heading 1 styles.
      1. Change the font name to Tahoma.
        Update the font, color, size, and style of the heading 1.
      2. Right-click on the new orange heading 1. Choose Update Heading 1 to Match.
        Update default heading 1 to match.
  3. Triple-click on the Table of Contents text, which is set to Heading 3 style on the cover page. Change the color to Blue, the font size to 18, and the style to Bold.
  4. Choose the font name and change the default style to match the new style so that anytime you choose a Heading 3 style, they'll match what you designed:
    • Update the existing Heading 3 style to Tahoma blue bold using one of these methods:
      1. Right-click on the Heading 3 style and choose Update to Match Selection.
      2. From the Home tab's Style or Format menu, choose Apply Styles.... Or, from the Styles Pane, click the down arrow next to the Heading 3 option.
        Update default heading 3 styles.
      1. Change the font to Tahoma.
        Update the font, color, size, and style of the heading 1.
      2. Right-click on the new blue heading 3. Choose Update Heading 3 to Match.
        Update default heading 3 to match.
  5. Now, scroll down the document to see that all of the page headings are blue.

2.12 Force a new page for each numbered section.

Place the cursor in front of the 1 Introduction prompt.

  • From the Layout or Insert tab, choose Breaks and Page (the first option) or Pages and Page Break.
    From the layout menu choose break page.
    From the layout menu choose break page.
  • CtrlEnter or Enter to force it onto a new page.

Do the same for each of the remaining numbered prompts so that each numbered prompt is at the top of a new page.
Control enter to force a page break.
The 1 Introduction page will probably spill into another page because you previously wrote nine or ten paragraphs. This isn't a problem as long as all remaining headings start at the top of a new page.

    1. From the Insert tab, choose Footer > Grid, Insight, Semaphore, or Bold Number 3 style.
      Insert a footer.
      The goal is to show the page number and page count.
    2. If necessary, force the page numbering to to the right using the Home tab's right-align button.
    3. If your Footer style is missing a horizontal line above it, then, from the Insert tab, choose Shapes > Line.
      Add a Line shape to the footer area.
      Drag the line tool from left to right just above or beside the page numbers.
      From the Shape Format tab, choose Black.
      Add a Line shape to the footer area.
    4. If your choice of footer themes does not include a page count, then try the How to include the total number of pages along with the current page number tutorial, or this method:
      1. Within the footer, to the right of the page number and spacer symbol (such as the vertical bar character found under the delete/backspace key), add another space.
      2. CtrlF9.
      3. Type NUMPAGES between the resulting curly braces {}.
      4. ShiftF9 to save the function.
      5. Double-check that the resulting number is correct by scrolling to the last page.
    1. From the Insert menu, choose Footer.
      Add a footer from the Insert menu.
    2. Place the cursor in that new footer area and from the Insert menu, choose page numbering and the option that starts numbering on page two (so the Table of Contents cover page isn't numbered).
      Number the pages in the footer.
    3. On page 1's footer, place the cursor after the number. Type a slash /. Select the Page Count option from the Insert menu's Footer menu.
      Add a horizontal line to the footer.
    4. From the Footer's Options link, update the Footer margin to 0.
      Add a horizontal line to the footer.
    5. From the Insert menu, choose Horizontal Line. The footer should look like this now:
      Add page count after the page number.

2.14 Add a dynamic table of contents to the cover page.

Place the cursor under the level 3 heading that says Table of Contents on the first page of your document.

    1. Triple-click the Table of Contents heading 3.
    2. From the References tab, choose Table of Contents > Automatic Table 2 (or something similar, like Classic).
      Choose Table of Contents from the References menu.
    3. Select and delete the redundant items from the list so that the Table of Contents on the cover page so it looks like this:
      The resulting table of contents.
    4. When it is time to udpate the page numbering, use the tab menu to choose Update Table.
      Click the dropdown menu to choose Update Table.
    1. From the Insert menu, choose Table of Contents with numbering.
      Insert a numbered table of contents on the first page.
    2. Notice that headings from all of the pages are automatically added with page numbering.
    3. Select and delete the redundant items from the list so that the Table of Contents on the cover page looks like this:
      Remove redundant items from the Table of Contents.
    4. When it is time to udpate the page numbering, click the refreshRefresh icon.

Add a copyright statement under the table of contents list to certify that you own the content of this document.

  • From the Insert tab, choose Symbol or Advanced Symbols. Choose the © symbol.
    Choose the copyright symbol. Or, use this keystroke: Alt0169.
  • From the Insert menu, choose Special Characters or Symbols. Search for the word 'copyright' and click on the resulting © symbol. Click the X to close the popup screen.
  • Optiong to make the copyright symbol.

After the symbol, add a space, the year, another space, and your first and last name. Do not use commas and remember the space between each item. Select that text and apply the Normal style if it isn't already. The result will look like this:
A typical copyright statement uses the symbol, the year, and the owners name.
When you make copyright statements in the future, remember that only a human or a business can own intellectual property (a domain name or website cannot).

Doesn't your new document look great!

The cover page has a heading 1, 2, and 3 along with a table of contents and copyright statement. Font size is 12, line spacing is 1.15 and space after is 10pt.

The section headings and paragraphs should look like these screenshots.

If they don't look quite right, review each step above before asking for help. Remember, the goal is to alleviate eye fatigue with the right size, indent, and spacing.

You'll use this same document each week and save it with a new chapter name. Each paragraph you add should have the Normal text applied to it, including each bibliography item.


Need the Instructor's help?

If you have questions about completing the technical skills or the writing, you can share your file with the instructor.

  • Share a Google file:
    1. With your file open, click the Sharing button at the top right of the screen. Or, if the file is not open but listed in the Drive, right-click it to choose the Share menu.
    2. Click the Get Link box to update the OSU Settings and copy the link:
      Change settings so that only OSU people can view. Copy the link.
    3. Ignore the Share with People and Groups box for this course.
      Don't share your files this way for this course.
    4. Paste the URL into the Canvas Inbox message or Assignment Comment box, along with your questions. Note which step number you're stuck on.
  • Share a Microsoft file:
    1. Login to your OSU OneDrive account from the browser.
    2. Drag the file from your hard drive to the OSU OneDrive file list in the browser to transfer it there.
    3. Beside the file name in the list, click the Share icon:
      Click the Share icon for the file to change the settings.
    4. Choose the settings provided in the screenshot below:
      Change settings so that only OSU people can view it without editing or downloading.
    5. Copy the link so you can provide it to the instructor or in the Assignment Comment box.
      Click the Copy Link icon. Select and copy the link.
    6. Paste the URL into the Canvas Inbox message or Assignment Comment box, along with your questions. Note which step number you're stuck on.

Read, research, and write about being prepared

Scroll through the articles to read them.

Write in the third-person style, check spelling and grammar, hyperlink in a sentence the title of every article you reference, and add bold to key concepts.

2.16 Understand the writing style.

  1. Writing Samples
  2. In the What I’ve Learned document, on the page titled 2 Prepare to Succeed!, write a single paragraph under the heading that summarizes the Writing Samples article above. Include concepts such as third-person active voice, hyperlinking, and keywords.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink.
    Right-click on the article or movie title to copy its link address. Paste the copied URL using Control or Command K.
  4. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
    Add bold to keywords.

2.17 Research and write about learning.

  1. Modern Learning
  2. Below the previous paragraph, write a single paragraph that summarizes the Modern Learning article above.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.
  4. The CS 101 class doesn’t use peer reviewing, which is mentioned in the article, but you can work together outside of class and ask each other questions online as needed. I highly recommend forming study groups. When TAs and the instructor have time, they sometimes provide a review in the Canvas Assignment Commenting area.

2.18 Read and write about obligations.

  1. Obligations
  2. Under the previous paragraph that you wrote about learning, write a single paragraph that summarizes the Obligations article above.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.

2.19 Read about write about safety from cyberbullying.

  1. Cyberbullying on the College Campus
  2. Under the previous paragraph that you wrote about obligations, write a single paragraph that summarizes the eight types of Cyberbullying from the article above.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.

2.20 Read and write about avoiding plagiarism.

  1. Avoiding Plagiarism
  2. Under the previous paragraph that you wrote about cyberbullying, write a single paragraph that summarizes the Avoiding Plagiarism article above.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.

2.21 Read and write about understanding TurnItIn's Originality Highlighting.

When you submit work for this course, it will often be a PDF file, which gets simultaneously added to Canvas and TurnItIn. TurnItIn will check for plagiarism against other students' submissions from OSU and other colleges. After you fix plagiarism problems, you can resubmit a new PDF file before the Available Until date. Do not attempt to submit a second time after the Available Until; it will not be accepted. Check the report regardless of the percentage.

  1. Checking Originality in TurnItIn
  2. Under the previous paragraph that you wrote about avoiding plagiarism, write a single paragraph that summarizes the TurnItIn's Originality highlighting article above.
  3. Right-click on the article's title above and choose Copy link address, then, select the name of the article in your paragraph and Ctrlk or k to add a hyperlink. Select important keywords and apply the Bold style.

Doesn't your new document look great!

Font size is 12, line spacing is 1.15 and space after is 10pt.

The section headings and paragraphs should look like this screenshot.

If they don't look quite right, review each step above before asking for help. Remember, the goal is to alleviate eye fatigue with the right font (Tahoma), size (12), indent (.25), spacing (1.15 and 10pt), and hyperlinked article titles, and bold key concepts.

The writing style is third-person active voice rather than first-person and the article titles are used in a sentence.

You'll use this same document each week and save it with a new chapter name. Each paragraph you add should have the Normal text applied to it, including each bibliography item (which we'll create in chapter 6).


2.22 Check grammar and spelling.

  1. Check and correct grammar and spelling using the built-in functions, Grammarly plugin, or LanguageTool Chrome extension.
    • Click the Review tab on the ribbon. Click Spelling or Spelling & Grammar.
    • Click Tools > Check Spelling > Spell check. A box will open in the top right corner.
    • ; or choose Edit > Spelling and Grammar > Check Grammar With Spelling (a checkmark indicates it’s on), then choose Check Document Now.

2.23 Make a PDF file.

  1. Save as the file with CtrlShifts or Shifts, and rename the file What I've Learned NAME Ch__. Replace NAME with your name. Replace __ with the chapter number. Next, create a PDF file:
    • From the File menu, choose Save As > PDF > Standard (for electronic and printing distribution).
      If you are using Word for Macintosh, then choose PDF > For Printing.
      Or, Ctrlp to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
    • From the File menu, choose Download as PDF.
    • From the File menu, choose Export to... and choose PDF.
      OR, p to Print a PDF file. Choose PDF from the list of printers.
  2. Check to confirm that hyperlinks work.
  3. Move all files to this course's folder in the Documents folder of your hard drive.

2.24 Submit the assignment.

  1. Click on the Canvas Home button and scroll down to the Assignment.
  2. Click the Assignment link.
  3. Upload the What I've Learned... PDF file.
  4. Confirm that it uploaded.
  5. Check the TurnItIn Report for plagiarized phrases and sentences. Review how to use TurnItIn.
  6. Either edit or quote the TurnItIn Report's highlighted passages in your original file and resave the PDF file.
  7. Upload the newer version in the Canvas Assignment.

Back up to multiple sources

Earlier, you saved a copy of your work with a new name. Now, copy that backup to a different location, such as:

  1. Cloud drive such as Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or Apple iCloud.
  2. A USB stick drive.
  3. Zip archive file.
  4. Turn on automatic backups.
    • Windows 10
      Learn to use the Windows File History feature to backup files to a new location.
    • MacOS
      Learn to use Time Machine for backup up automatically to external hard drive devices.

Because bad things happen to good people and their computers, you must back up every time you work on a project. Losing your work because of a technical glitch and lack of a backup will not provide you with a due date extension; it will only provide you with empathy.

Criteria to meet by the end of chapter 2

If you have questions about how to use any of the required technologies for this lesson or what the following criteria mean, please reread the relevant lessons, view the Zoom recordings, then ask the Instructor via the Canvas Inbox.

Check Canvas Home, Assignments, and Calendar for the most current Due date and time. The Available Until date and time constitutes a grace period, which can be used in an emergency, or if you are ill.

By the end of chapter 2, these items must be completed to earn full points:

Discussion

  1. Discussed writing versus quiz-taking.
  2. Listed questions about writing to learn.
  3. Discussed using Keep for note-taking.
  4. Replied to another student with new information about writing to learn and/or using Keep.

Document Design

  1. Cover page's first heading is Bold, italic, underlined and orange in size 20.
  2. Cover page's second heading is set to the Heading 2 style in bold size 14.
  3. Cover page includes a dynamic Table of Contents.
  4. Cover page includes a copyright symbol, the year, and student's name under the Table of Contents.
  5. Third-level headings are Bold, Blue, and size 18.
  6. First line of each paragraph is indented.
  7. Document's paragraphs are set with Tahoma font and size 12.
  8. Line spacing is customized to 1.15 and 10pt after each paragraph.
  9. Each section (heading level 3) starts on a new page.
  10. Footer includes a horizontal line, right-aligned automatic page numbers, and the page count.

Writing

  1. First paragraph of Section 2 summarizes the Writing Samples article.
  2. Second paragraph of Section 2 summarizes the Modern Learning article.
  3. Third paragraph of Section 2 summarizes the Obligations article.
  4. Fourth paragraph of Section 2 summarizes the Cyberbullying article.
  5. Fifth paragraph of Section 2 summarizes the Avoiding Plagiarism article.
  6. Sixth paragraph of Section 2 summarizes TurnItIn's Originality Highlighting article.
  7. PDF file is free of plagiarism.
  8. PDF file is free of grammar and spelling errors.