Andreas Schmittner's Publications

Articles in Peer-Reviewed Publications

1997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

In Review / In Press

  • Muglia, J. Somes, C. J., Nickelsen, L., and A. Schmittner (in review)
    Combined effects of atmospheric and seafloor iron fluxes to the glacial ocean
  • Published


  • Lacerra, M., D. C. Lund, J. Yu, and A. Schmittner (2017)
    Carbon storage in the mid-depth Atlantic during millennial-scale climate events
    Paleoceanography, 32, 780-795doi:10.1002/2016PA003081.
  • Schmittner, A., H. C. Bostock, O. Cartapanis, W. B. Curry, H. L. Filipsson, E. D. Galbraith, J. Gottschalk, J. C. Herguera, S. Jaccard, L. E. Lisiecki, D. C. Lund, G. Martínez-Méndez, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, A. Mackensen, E. Michel, A. C. Mix, D. W. Oppo, C. D. Peterson, E. L. Sikes, H. J. Spero, and C. Waelbroeck (2017)
    Calibration of the Carbon Isotope Composition (δ13C) of Epibenthic Foraminifera
    Paleoceanography, 32(6), 512-530, doi:10.1002/2016PA003072.
  • Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A., Muglia, J. and A. Oschlies (2017)
    A three-dimensional model of the marine nitrogen cycle during the Last Glacial Maximum constrained by sedimentary isotopes
    Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 108, doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00108.
  • Ullman, D. J. and A. Schmittner (2017)
    A cloud feedback emulator (CFE, version 1.0) for an intermediate complexity model
    Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 945-958, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-945-2017.
  • 2016

  • Bakker, P., Schmittner, A., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bi, D., van den Broeke, M. R., Chan, W.-L., Beadling, R. L., Marsland, S. J., Mernild, S. H., Saenko, O. A., Swingedouw, D., Sullivan, A. and J. Jin (2016)
    Fate of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation - Strong decline under continued warming and Greenland melting
    Geophysical Research Letters, 43(23), 12,252-12,260, doi:10.1002/2016GL070457.
  • Bakker, P., Clark, P. U., Golledge, N. R., Schmittner, A., and M. E. Weber (2016)
    Centennial-scale Holocene climate variations amplified by Antarctic Ice Sheet discharge
    Nature, 541, 72–76, doi:10.1038/nature20582.
  • Hertzberg, J. E., Lund, D. C., Schmittner, A. and A. L. Skrivanek (2016)
    Evidence for a Biological Pump Driver of Atmospheric CO2 Rise during Heinrich Stadial 1
    Geophysical Research Letters, 43(23), 12,242-12,251, doi:10.1002/2016GL070723.
  • Schmittner, A., and C. J. Somes (2016)
    Complementary Constraints from Carbon (13C) and Nitrogen (15N) Isotopes on the Efficiency of the Glacial Ocean's Soft-Tissue Biological Pump
    Paleoceanography, 31, doi:10.1002/2015PA002905.
  • 2015

  • Green, J. A. M., and Schmittner, A. (2015)
    Climatic Consequences of a Pine Island Glacier Collapse
    Journal of Climate, 28, 9221-9234, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0110.1.
  • Buizert, C., and Schmittner, A. (2015)
    Southern Ocean Control of Glacial AMOC Stability and Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadial Duration
    Paleoceanography, 30, doi:10.1002/2015PA002795.
  • Muglia, J., and Schmittner, A. (2015)
    Glacial Atlantic overturning increased by wind stress in climate models
    Geophysical Research Letters, 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064583.
  • Kvale, K. F., Meissner, K. J., Keller, D. P., Eby, M., and Schmittner, A. (2015)
    Explicit planktic calcifiers in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model
    Atmosphere-Ocean, 53(3), doi: 10.1080/07055900.2015.1049112.
  • Schmittner, A., Green, J. A. M., and Wilmes, S.-B. (2015)
    Glacial Ocean Overturning Intensified by Tidal Mixing in a Global Circulation Model
    Geophysical Research Letters, 42(10), 4014-4022, doi: 10.1002/2015GL063561.
  • Lund, D. C., Tessin, A. C., Hoffman, J. L., and Schmittner, A. (2015)
    Southwest Atlantic watermass evolution during the last deglaciation
    Paleoceanography. 30, doi:10.1002/2014PA002657
  • Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (2015)
    Early deglacial Atlantic overturning decline and its role in atmospheric CO2 rise inferred from carbon isotopes (δ13C)
    Climate of the Past, 11, 135-152.
  • 2014

  • Schmittner, A., and Egbert, G. D. (2014)
    An improved parameterization of tidal mixing for ocean models
    Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 211-224, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-211-2014.


  • Schmittner, A., Gruber, N., Mix, A. C., Key, R. M., Tagliabue, A., and Westberry, T. K. (2013)
    Biology and air-sea gas exchange controls on the distribution of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the ocean
    Biogeosciences, 10, 5793-5816, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5793-2013.
  • Somes, C. J., Oschlies, A., and Schmittner, A. (2013)
    Isotopic constraints on the pre-industrial oceanic nitrogen budget
    Biogeosciences, 10, 5889-5910, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5889-2013.
  • Galbraith, E. D., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Batista, F., Bianchi, D., Calvert, S. E., Contreras Quintana, S., Crosta, X., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Etourneau, J., Francois, R., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S. L., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M. F., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Meckler, A. N., Mix, A. C., Mobius, J., Pedersen, T. F., Quan, T. M., Robinson, R. S., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A. S., Tesdal, J.-E., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. T. (2012)
    The acceleration of oceanic denitrification during deglacial warming,
    Nature Geosc., 6, 579-584, doi:10.1038/ngeo1832.


  • Robinson, R. S., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Contreras Quintana, S., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Francois, R., Galbraith, E., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Mobius, J., Pedersen, T., Quan, T. M., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. (2012)
    A review of nitrogen isotopic alteration in marine sediments
    Paleoceanogr., 24, PA4203, doi: 10.1029/2012PA002321.
  • Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., Schmittner, A., and Kreutz, K. (2012)
    Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age,
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18711, doi:10.1029/2012GL53018.
  • Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Mele, A. (2012)
    Response to Comment on Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum
    Science, 337, 1294, doi: 10.1126/science.1221634.
  • Pinsonneault, A. J., Matthews, H. D., Galbraith, E. D., and Schmittner, A. (2012)
    Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification
    Biogeosciences, 9, 2351-2364, doi:10.5194/bg-9-2351-2012.
  • Ross, A., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Kothavala, Z. (2012)
    Assessing the Effects of Ocean Diffusivity and Climate Sensitivity on the Rate of Global Climate Change
    Tellus B, 64, 17733, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17733.
  • Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., He, F., Marcott, S. A., Mix, A. C., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B., Schmittner, A., and Bard, E. (2012) Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation
    Nature, 484, 49-54, doi:10.1038/nature10915.
  • Zhang, X., Prange, M., Steph, S., Butzin, M., Krebs, U., Lunt, D. J., Nisancioglu, K. H., Park, W., Schmittner, A., Schneider, B., Schulz, M. (2012)
    Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian Seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study
    Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 317-318, 76-84, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.028.


  • Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Mele, A. (2011)
    Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum
    Science, 334, 1385-1388, doi: 10.1126/science.1203513.
  • Zickfeld, K., Eby, M., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Weaver, A. J. (2011)
    Nonlinearity of carbon cycle feedbacks
    J. Climate, 24, 4255-4275, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3898.1.
  • Marcott, S. A., Clark, P. U., Padman, L., Klinkhammer, G. P., Springer, S., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Carlson, A. E., Ungerer, A., Padman, J., He, F., Cheng, J., and Schmittner, A. (2011)
    Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events
    Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 108 (33), 13415-13419, doi:10.1073/pnas.1104772108.
  • Schmittner, A., Silva, T. A. M., Fraedrich, K., Kirk, E. and Lunkeit, F. (2011)
    Effects of Mountains and Ice Sheets on Global Ocean Circulation
    J. Climate, 24, 2814-2829, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3982.1.
  • Alder, C. J., Hostetler, S. W., Pollard, D., and Schmittner, A. (2011)
    Evaluation of a present-day climate simulation with a new coupled atmosphere-ocean model GENMOM
    Geosi. Model Dev., 4, 69-83, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-69-2011.


  • Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A. and Altabet, M. A. (2010)
    Nitrogen isotope simulations show the importance of atmospheric iron deposition for nitrogen fixation across the Pacific Ocean
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23605, doi:10.1029/2010GL044537.
  • Goes, M., Urban, N. M., Tonkonojenkov, R., Haran, M., Schmittner, A., and Keller, K., (2010)
    What is the skill of ocean tracers in reducing uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation?
    J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12006, doi:10.1029/2010JC006407.
  • Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A., Galbraith, E. D., Lehmann, M. F., Altabet, M. A., Montoya, J. P., Letelier, R. M., Mix, A. C., Bourbonnais, A., and Eby, M. (2010)
    Simulating the global distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the ocean
    Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2009GB003767.


  • Schmittner, A., N. M. Urban, K. Keller, and D. Matthews (2009)
    Using tracer observations to reduce the uncertainty of ocean diapycnal mixing and climate-carbon cycle projections
    Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4009, doi:10.1029/2008GB003421.
  • Sarnthein, M., G. Bartoli, M. Prange, A. Schmittner, B. Schneider, M. Weinelt, N. Andersen, and D..Garbe-Schonberg (2009)
    Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates
    Clim. Past, 5, 269-283, doi:10.5194/cp-5-269-2009.


  • Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith (2008)
    Glacial greenhouse gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes
    Nature, 456, 373-376, doi:10.1038/nature07531.
  • Oschlies, A., K. G. Schulz, U. Riebesell, and A. Schmittner (2008)
    Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export
    Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB4008, doi:10.1029/2007GB003147.
  • Schmittner, A., A. Oschlies, H. D. Matthews, and E. D. Galbraith (2008)
    Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD
    Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB1013, doi:10.1029/2007GB002953.


  • Clark, P. U., S. W. Hostetler, N. G. Pisias, A. Schmittner, and K. J. Meissner (2007)
    Mechanisms for a ~7-kyr climate and sea-level oscillation during marine isotope stage 3
    in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophys. Monograph, vol. 173, edited by Schmittner, A., J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 315-334, American Geophysical Union.
  • Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn (2007)
    Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2
    in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 173, edited by A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 209-246, American Geophysical Union.
  • Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith, S. W. Hostetler, T. F. Pedersen, and R. Zhang (2007)
    Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction
    Paleoceanogr., 22, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2006PA001384.
  • Schneider, B., M. Latif, and A. Schmittner (2007)
    Evaluation of different methods to assess model projections of the future evolution of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
    J. Climate, 20, 2121-2132.


  • Schneider, B. and A. Schmittner (2006)
    Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling
    Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 246, 367-380.


  • Schmittner, A., Latif, M. and Schneider, B. (2005)
    Model Projections of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation for the 21st century assessed by observations
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23710, doi:10.1029/2005GL024368.
  • Schmittner, A., Oschlies, A., Giraud, X., Eby, M. and Simmons H.L. (2005)
    A Global Model of the Marine Ecosystem for Long Term Simulations: Sensitivity to Ocean Mixing, Buoyancy Forcing, Particle Sinking and Dissolved Organic Matter Cycling
    Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3004, doi:10.1029/2004GB002283.
  • Schmittner, A., (2005)
    Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation
    Nature, 434, 628-633.
  • Kösters, F., R. H. Käse, A. Schmittner and P. Herrmann (2005)
    The Effect of Denmark Strait Overflow on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04602, doi:10.1029/2004GL022112.


  • Schmittner, A., M. Sarnthein, H. Kinkel, G. Bartoli, T. Bickert, M. Crucifix, D. Crudeli, J. Groeneveld, F. Kösters, U. Mikolajewicz, C. Millo, J. Reimer, P. Schäfer, D. Schmidt, B. Schneider, M. Schulz, S. Steph, R. Tiedemann, M. (2004)
    Global Impact of the Panamanian Seaway Closure
    EOS, 85, 526.
  • Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and A. J. Weaver (2004)
    The Atlantic-Pacific seesaw
    J. Climate, 17, 2033-2038.
  • Ewen, T., A.J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2004)
    Modelling carbon cycle feedbacks during abrupt climate change
    Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 431-448.


  • Saenko, O. A., A. J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2003)
    Atlantic deep circulation controlled by freshening in the Southern Ocean
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1754, doi:10.1029/2003GL017681.
  • Schmittner, A. (2003)
    Southern Ocean sea ice and radiocarbon ages of glacial bottom waters
    Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 213, 53-62, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00291-7.
  • Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2003)
    The ventilation of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum - a comparison between simulated and observed radiocarbon ages
    Paleoceanogr., 18 (2). doi:10.1029/2002PA000762.
  • Schmittner, A., Saenko, O. A. and Weaver,A. J. (2003)
    Coupling of the hemispheres in observations and simulations of glacial climate change
    Quat. Sci. Rev., 22, 659-671.doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00184-1.


  • Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2002)
    On the role of wind-driven sea ice motion on ocean ventilation
    J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3376-3395.
  • Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A., Wiebe, E. C. and Weaver, A. J. (2002)
    Simulations of Heinrich Events in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 10.1029/2001GL013514.
  • Schmittner, A., Meissner, K. J., Eby, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002)
    Forcing of the deep ocean circulation in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum
    Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2001PA000633.
  • Schmittner, A. and Clement, A. C. (2002)
    Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation to tropical and high latitude freshwater forcing during the last glacial-interglacial cycle
    Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2000PA000591.
  • Schmittner, A., Yoshimori, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002)
    Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system
    Science, 295, 1489-1493.


  • Weaver, A. J., Eby, M., Wiebe, E. C., Bitz, C. M., Duffy, P. B., Ewen, T. L., Fanning, A. F., Holland, M. M., MacFadyen, A., Saenko, O., Schmittner, A., Wang, H. and Yoshimori,M. (2001)
    The UVic Earth System Climate Model: Model Description, Climatology and Applications to Past, Present and Future Climates
    Atmos.-Ocean, 4, 361-428.
  • Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2001)
    Dependence of multiple climate states on ocean mixing parameters
    Geoph. Res. Let., 28, 1027-1030.
  • Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F., (2001)
    A seasonally forced model for paleoclimate studies
    J. Climate, 14, 1055-1068.


  • Appenzeller, C., Stocker, T.F., and Schmittner, A. (2000)
    Climate change and natural climate variability: chance for surprise?
    Integr. Assessment, 1, 301-306.
  • Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000)
    Enhanced Atlantic freshwater export during El Nino
    Geoph. Res. Let., 27, 1163-1166.
  • Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000)
    Validation of parametrisations for the meridional energy and moisture transport used in simple climate models
    Clim. Dyn., 16, 63-77.


  • Joos, F., Plattner, G.-K., Stocker, T.F., Marchal, O. and Schmittner, A. (1999)
    Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2
    Science, 284, 464-467.
  • Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F. (1999)
    The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments
    J. Climate, 12,1117-1133.


  • Stocker, T. F. and Schmittner, A. (1997)
    Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation
    Nature, 388, 862-865.

    Other Publications

  • Kilbourne, H., M. Klockmann, E. Moreno-Chamarro, P. Ortega, A. Romanou, M. Srokosz, Z. Szuts, K. Thirumalai, I. Hall, P. Heimback, D. Oppo, A. Schmittner, and R. Zhang (2017)
    Connecting paleo and modern oceanographic data to understand AMOC over decades to centuries
    A US CLIVAR Workshop Report, Report 2017-3, 26pp., doi:10.5065/D6KP80KR.
  • Bakker, P. and A. Schmittner (2016)
    AMOC-emulator M-AMOC1.0 for uncertainty assessment of future projections
    Geoscientific Model Development Discussions.
  • Schmittner, A. (2016)
    The smoking gun for Atlantic circulation changes
    Science, 353 (6298), 445-446, doi:10.1126/science.aag3156.
  • Aronson, E. L., Bristol, S., Burgess, A. B., Chandrasekar, V., Close, H., van Eyken, T., Ferrini, V., Gomez, B., Kinkade, D., Kelbert, A., Martin, R. L., Ritterbusch, K., Rubin, K., Schmittner A., Slota, S., Stamps, D. S., Stocks, K., Tzeng, M. W., Wiebe, P., and Wood-Charlson, E. (2015)
    Geoscience 2020: Cyberinfrastructure to reveal the past, comprehend the present, and evision the future
    in EarthCube Working Paper, ECWP-2015-1, 19p.
  • Schmittner A., Jaccard, S. L., Mix, A. C., and Sikes, E. L. (2015)
    Deglacial Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling
    in PAGES Magazine, January, vol 23, nr 1, 30.
  • Skinner, L., and A. Schmittner (2014)
    IPODS: Investigating Past Ocean Dynamics Workshop Report
    in Quaternary Perspectives, November, vol 21, nr 435, 9-10.
  • Rosell, A., and A. Schmittner (2012)
    La sensibilitad del clima al dioxido de carbono
    in Investigacion y Ciencia, Spanish edition of Scientific American, December, nr 435, 14-15.
  • Schmittner, A. (2012)
    Marine nutrient cycling - How will the ocean's capacity of biological carbon pumping change?
    in Paired Perspectives on Global Change PAGES News, vol. 20, nr. 1, edited by N. R. Bondre and T. Kiefer, Past Global Changes.
  • Schmittner, A. (2012)
    Ice Age Lessons for Future Climate Change
    in The Long View, vol. 9, Oregon State Bar Sustainable Future Section.
  • Schmittner, A., Abe-Ouchi, A., Braconnot, P., Harrison, S. P., and Otto-Bliesner, B. L. (2011)
    PMIP3 Workshop
    in PAGES news, vol 19, nr 2, 83-84.
  • Schmittner, A., J. C. H. Chiang and S. Hemming (2007)
    Introduction: The ocean's meridional overturning circulation
    in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 173, edited by A. Schmittner, J. C. H. Chiang, and S. R. Hemming, pp. 1-4, American Geophysical Union.


  • Andreas Schmittner, John Chiang, Sidney Hemmings, Editors
    Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts
    Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173, 392 pages, hardbound, 2007, ISBN 13: 978-0-87590-438-2.

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